Pinhole / Porosity Detection
Premature corrosion of a substrate is usually due to a coating failure. A major cause is the presence of flaws in the finished coating. Pinhole Porosity detection can pick up these flaws. Collectively referred to as porosity, the main types of flaws are:
Runs & Sags: Coatings move under gravity leaving a thin dry film.
Cissing: When a coating does not re-flow to cover the voids generated by air bubbles being released from the surface of a coating.
Cratering: If the substrate is wet or the coating has poor flow characteristics, voids are created in the coating.
Pinholes: Caused by air entrapment which is then released from the surface, or by the entrapment of particulates (dust, sand etc.) which do not stay in place.
Over Coating: If too much coating is applied, as it cures internal stresses of the coating can cause it to crack.
Under Coating: Uncoated areas, or where the coating flows away from edges or corners of a substrate or welds. Insufficient coating over a rough surface profile may also leave the peaks of the profile exposed.
Areas are not coated or the coating flows away from particular edges, corners of a substrate and welds.
Furthermore, over a rough surface profile, insufficient coating may leave the profile’s peaks exposed.
The consequent cost of repairs and subsequent loss of production can be considerable. Early inspection for coating flaws will prevent the expense and inconvenience of a coating failure. Instruments used to detect coating flaws are referred to by many different names, these include spark or jeep testers, porosity or holiday detectors and pinhole testers.
There are two methods of Pinhole Porosity detection or testing:
Wet Sponge Technique
Suitable for measuring insulating coatings on metal less than 500µm on conductive substrates. The wet sponge technique is ideal for powder coatings and any thin coating where the User does not wish damage to occur to the coating.
A low voltage is applied to a sponge, moistened with a wetting agent. When the sponge moves over a coating flaw, liquid penetrates to the substrate and completes an electrical circuit, setting off the alarm.
This technique will identify coating flaws where the substrate is uncovered, ie. cissing, cratering, pinholes and some forms of over and under coating flaws.
High Voltage Technique
Locates all flaws in insulating coatings on conductive substrates, the high voltage technique can be used to test coatings up to more than 7mm thick. This method is ideal for inspecting pipelines and other protective coatings. Coatings on concrete can also be tested using this method.
A power supply generates a high DC voltage which is connected to a suitable probe with an earth return connected to the substrate. As the probe is passed over the coated substrate, a flaw is indicated by a spark at the contact point which sets off the alarm.
This technique is suitable for identifying all of the flaws described above, however care is required on thin coatings.